Mengenal Tiga Jenis Jamur Konsumsi di Indonesia

Jamur merupakan jenis tanaman yang tidak memiliki klorofil atau zat hijau daun, sehingga tanaman jamur tidak bisa menghasilkan makanan sendiri melalui proses fotosintesis seperti tanaman hijau lainnya. Jamur hidup dengan cara mengambil zat-zat makanan dan senyawa pati dari organisme lain. Jamur hidup dengan bergantung pada organisme lain, karena itu sering kita jumpai tanaman jamur yang hidup menempel pada batang pohon yang telah lapuk.

Ada ribuan jenis jamur yang tersebar di seluruh dunia, mulai dari wilayah subtropis dengan suhu dingin hingga wilayah tropis dengan suhu hangat. Dari ribuan jenis jamur tersebut tidak semua jamur menguntungkan bagi manusia dan dapat dikonsumsi. Jenis jamur yang merugikan adalah jenis jamur yang menjadi penyebab berbagai macam penyakit pada tanaman. Jenis jamur merugikan lainnya adalah jenis jamur yang mengandung racun dan menjadi sumber penyakit bagi manusia.

Beberapa jenis jamur yang menguntungkan bagi manusia dan dapat dikonsumsi adalah jenis jamur merang, jamur kuping, jamur shittake, jamur tiram dan jamur champignon. Dari jenis jamur tersebut, jamur kuping, jamur tiram dan jamur merang adalah jenis jamur yang paling banyak dibudidayakan oleh petani di Indoensia. Tiga jenis jamur ini juga menjadi jamur yang paling banyak dijual di pasaran Indonesia, karena bisa tumbuh hampir di seluruh wilayah Indoensia.

Jamur memiliki rasa yang enak hampir menyamai rasa daging, karena itu banyak orang yang menyukainya. Jamur memiliki kandungan protein yang lebih tinggi jika dibandingkan dengan bahan makanan dari jenis tanaman lain. Selain itu jamur juga memiliki beberapa khasiat yang mampu mencegah dan mengobati berbagai macam penyakit. Kandungan lemak yang rendah pada jamur menjadikan jamur sebagai salah satu bahan makanan yang lebih sehat untuk dikonsumsi.

Tiga Jenis Jamur Konsumsi di Indonesia

1. Jamur Tiram

Jamur tiram adalah jenis jamur yang paling banyak dibudidayakan oleh petani di Indonesia karena cara budidayanya yang bisa dibilang mudah. Di Indoensia jenis jamur tiram yang paling banyak dibudidayakan adalah jenis jamur tiram putih. Jamur tiram tumbuh dengan tubuh buahnya membentuk rumpun yang memiliki banyak percabangan. Bentuk jamur tiram memiliki tudung yang agak membulat, lonjong dan melengkung.

Jamur tiram dapat ditemukan tumbuh secara alami pada batang-batang kayu lunak yang telah lapuk seperti pohon karet, damar, kapuk dan sengon. Jamur ini tumbuh pada lokasi yang sangat lembab dan terlindung dari sinar matahari langsung. Jamur tiram banyak dibudidayakan oleh petani dalam tempat khusus yang disebut kumbung dengan memanfaatkan media tanam berupa bag log. Media tanam dengan bahan utama yang terbuat dari serbuk kayu dimasukan ke dalam plastik dan dibentuk menyerupai kayu gelondongan.

2. Jamur Kuping

Jamur kuping adalah salah satu jenis jamur kayu yang banyak tumbuh alami pada kayu-kayu lapuk. Jamur ini dapat dengan mudah ditemui pada pohon-pohon tumbang atau yang telah mati di hutan. Disebut sebagai jamur kuping karena bentuknya yang mirip dengan kuping (telinga). Jamur kuping memiliki warna cokelat muda hingga kemerah-merahan. Jamur kuping dalam keadaan basah terasa kenyal saat dipegang, licin dan lentur. Sedangkan jika dalam keadaan kering akan berubah menjadi kaku dan melengkung. Teknik budidaya jamur kuping hampir sama dengan jamur tiram dengan memanfaatkan media tanam berupa baglog.

3. Jamur merang

Banyak orang mengira jamur merang hanya bisa tumbuh pada media merang (tangkai padi) sesuai dengan namanya. Jamur merang sebenarnya bisa tumbuh pada sisa-sisa tanaman seperti ampas batang aren, ampas sagu, sisa tanaman jagung dan kulit buah pala. Jamur merang tumbuh pada lokasi dengan suhu 32 – 38 derajat celcius. Jamur merang tidak tahan terhadap cahaya matahari langsung, namun tetap membutuhkannya dalam bentuk pancaran tidak langsung.

Jamur merang terbentuk dengan tubuh buah yang terdiri dari batang dan tudung yang menyerupai payung. Jamur merang tumbuh dalam bentuk sulur halus, sulur-sulur ini menyerupai akar tanaman yang melekat pada sisa-sisa tanaman padi baik pada batang maupun tangkai bulirnya. Budidaya jamur merang biasanya dilakukan dengan memanfaatkan media tanam berupa jerami padi dan kapas, menggunakan wadah berupa rak dari kayu atau lainnya.

Budaya mengonsumsi jamur di Indonesia bisa dibilang masih rendah, hal ini bisa dilihat dari permintaan jamur di pasaran. Hanya kota-kota besar seperti Bekasi dan Tangerang yang membutuhkan pasokan jamur dalam jumlah besar setiap harinya. Pasokan itu pun masih sebatas pada pemenuhan kebutuhan jamur segar.

Jamur konsumsi bisa dipasarkan dalam bentuk makanan olahan seperti keripik atau abon. Produk-produk olahan dari jamur dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan mampu memperluas pemasaran jamur di Indonesia. Sehingga budaya mengonsumsi jamur yang merupakan bahan makanan sehat semakin diminati oleh masyarakat.

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